Principles of Public Speaking
Planning any discourse depends on the point of view being used by the speaker:
1. Historical point of view: chronology is the key here. Discuss origins and primary functions of the topic at hand.
2. Technical point of view: design and methodology are the keys here. Discuss rationale, methodology, design, and technique (perhaps in a historical, or chronological point of view).
3. Sociological point of view: social is the key here. Discuss the social function or advancements, thinking about how this topic fits into society at large.
4. Literary point of view: the fictive is the role here. Discuss the topic’s development in myths, legends, novels, poems, films, etc. 
Organizing an informational discourse: 
  • Focus on the following questions: what is the overall aim of your speech? What are its specific goals What is the core idea you want to get across to your audience?
  • What are your persuasive elements? (if any)
  • Understanding different audiences: What is your audience? How will you transform your topic to fit the audience (think about a topic such as adolescent pregnancy: if you’re talking to adolescents or parents of adolescents you might vary your approach).
  • How will you introduce your topic (think of being a little captivating!)
  • Develop your discussion: what are the most important facts about your project/topic?
  • Concluding your speech: what do you want to leave your audience thinking about?
  • Improve your oral performance by practicing! (Perhaps practice reading poetry or prose aloud! Or write your speech and read it to an audio/video recording system. Listen to your performance and revise your performance accordingly)
  • Visuals! Do you need visuals to help explain your topic? If so, what are the most effective images or information you want to convey. Remember: don’t overwhelm your audience with too much to look at or read. They’ll be paying attention more to what’s on the screen than what you’re saying
  • Do it by memory. After you’re practiced a bit, try rehearsing your presentation from memory!
  • Listen! Find a podcast that interests you or listen to a book on tape or some other audio presentation. What qualities can you use in your own presentations?